Part 7

Programming paradigms

A programming paradigm is a way of thinking about and structuring a program's functionality. Programming paradigms differ from one another, for example in how the program's execution and control are defined and what components the programs consist of.

Most programming languages ​​that are currently in use support multiple programming paradigms. Part of a programmer's growth involves the ability, through experience, to choose the appropriate programming language and paradigm; there currently is no single ubiquitous programming language and programming paradigm.

The most common programming paradigms today are object-oriented programming, procedural programming, and functional programming. The first two of these are briefly discussed in what follows.

Object-Oriented Programming

In object-oriented programming, information is represented as classes that describe the concepts of the problem domain and the logic of the application. Classes define the methods that determine how information is handled. During program execution, objects are instantiated from classes that contain runtime information and that also have an effect on program execution: program execution typically proceeds through a series of method calls related to the objects. As mentioned a few weeks ago, "the program is built from small, clear, and cooperative entities."

The basic ideas of object-oriented programming, i.e., the representation of information and its processing methods with he help of classes and objects, first appeared in Simula 67, which was designed for developing simulations and the Smalltalk programming language. Its breakthrough came in the 1980s through the C++ programming language and Java has made it one of the most widely used programming paradigms in the world.

One of the major benefits of object-oriented programming is how problem-domain concepts are modeled through classes and objects, which makes programs easier to understand. In addition, structuring the problem domain into classes facilitates the construction and maintenance of programs. However, object-oriented programming is not inherently suited to all problems: for example, scientific computing and statistics applications typically make use of languages, such as R and Python.

Procedural programming

Whereas in object-oriented programming, the structure of a program is formed by the data it processes, in procedural programming, the structure of the program is formed by functionality desired for the program: the program acts as a step-by-step guide for the functionality to be performed. The program is executed one step at a time, and subroutines (methods) are called whenever necessary.

In procedural programming, the state of the program is maintained in variables and tables, and any methods handle only the values provided to them as parameters. The program tells the computer what should happen. As an example, the code below demonstrates the swapping of values for two variables a and b

int a = 10;
int b = 15;

// let's swap the values of variables a and b
int c = b;
b = a;
a = c;

When comparing object-oriented programming with procedural programming, a few essential differences emerge. In object-oriented programming, the state of an object can, in principle, change with any object method, and that change of state can also affect the working of the methods of other objects. As a consequence, other aspects of a program's execution may also be affected since objects can be used in multiple places within the program.

The difference between object-oriented programming and procedural programming are shown concretely in the clock example presented at the beginning of Part Five. The solution below depicts a procedural style where the printing of the time is transferred to a method.

int hours = 0;
int minutes = 0;
int seconds = 0;

while (true) {
    // 1. printing the time
    print(hours, minutes, seconds);

    // 2. advancing the second hand
    seconds = seconds + 1;

    // 3. advancing the other hands when necessary
    if (seconds > 59) {
        minutes = minutes + 1;
        seconds = 0;

        if (minutes > 59) {
            hours = hours + 1;
            minutes = 0;

            if (hours > 23) {
                hours = 0;
public static void print(int hours, int minutes, int seconds) {

public static void print(int value) {
    if (value < 10) {


The same implemented in an object-oriented way:

public class Hand {
    private int value;
    private int upperBound;

    public Hand(int upperBound) {
        this.upperBound = upperBound;
        this.value = 0;

    public void advance() {
        this.value = this.value + 1;

        if (this.value >= this.upperBound) {
            this.value = 0;

    public int value() {
        return this.value;

    public String toString() {
        if (this.value < 10) {
            return "0" + this.value;

        return "" + this.value;
public class Clock() {
    private Hand hours;
    private Hand minutes;
    private Hand seconds;

    public Clock() {
        this.hours = new Hand(24);
        this.minutes = new Hand(60);
        this.seconds = new Hand(60);

    public void advance() {

        if (this.seconds.value() == 0) {

            if (this.minutes.value() == 0) {

    public String toString() {
        return hours + ":" + minutes + ":" + seconds;
Clock clock = new Clock();

while (true) {
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